Below are some systems bases key papers, books, guidelines and information for managing critically ill children


Algorithms from the Association of Paediatric Anaesthetists and the Difficult Airway Society


PEMVECC Guidelines

Recommendations for mechanical ventilation of critically ill children from the paediatric mechanical ventilation consensus conference, M Kneyber et al, Intensive Care medicine 2017:43:1764-1780

PEMVECC Highlights

PEMVECC Highlights

high Frequency Oscillatory Ventilation

The OUH PCC guidelines give indications, baseline and set up guide

This paper describes a nice method for recruitment manoeuvre:

Feasibility of an Alternative, physiologic individualised open-lung approach to high frequency Oscillatory ventilation in children, De Jager et . Annals of Intensive Care 2019;9:9


congenital cardiac disease

Classes of Defect

Many different classifications, this is a simple one

1.       Left to right shuts


2.       Obstructive lesions

Eg Aortic stenosis, Pulmonary Stenosis, Coarctation of Aorta

3.       Cyanotic lesions

Eg TGA (transposition of great arteries), TOF (tetralogy of Fallot), TAPVD (total anomalous pulmonary venous return[drainage]) Tricuspid atresia, pulmonary atresia, Hypoplastic left heart syndrome, Double outlet right ventricle, Ebstein anomoly

4.       Miscellaneous

ALCAPA (Anomalous origin of left coronary artery), Cor Triatriatum, Dextrocadia

Illustrated Field guide to congenital heart disease, A Everett, S Lim, Scientific Software Solutions

The Paediatric Cardiology Handbook, M Park, Mosby Elsevier [see also app]



Think low cardiac output and high peripheral vascular resistance in children (cold and shut down) versus high cardiac output, low vascular resistance (warm, bounding pulses) in adults.

2012 Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guideline for Children

2012 Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guideline for Children


diabetic ketoacidosis in children

Children are at a greater risk of cerebral oedema, fluid administration is very tightly managed.